Notes on Roman History

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adsidui : - term for land owners.

ager publicus : - public lands within Roman territory.
- the plebs depended upon these public lands for survival, but these lands were in fact controlled by the wealthiest families and their clans.

agger : - a defensive earthwork wall.

Ancus Marcius : - Roman King of Sabine origin.
- grandson of Numa on mother's side.
- built first bridge across Tiber.
- extended Roman territory westward to the sea.
- credited with laying Ostia.
- remembered as a popular and beneficent king.
Reigned: 641 - 617

Apennine culture : - the general term for cultures of Bronze Age (1800 - 1200 BC) Italy
- Italy was culturally uniform during this period

assignatio viritana : - a part of the intended plebeian land reform which would distribute newly conquered lands in allotments which would eventually become private property.

auctoritas patrum : - the patres ratification of the people's choice of king.

Battle of Lake Regillus : - a battle in 499 or 496 BC between the Latin League, and the request of the exiled Superbus, and Rome in an attempt to have the monarchy reinstated.

Caracalla : - 211 AD killed brother and co-emperor Geta.
- 212 AD Consitutio Antoninian which granted Roman citizenship to all be the dediticii.
- 212/216 built Baths of Caracalla.
Reigned: 209 - 217

censor : -a special officials who conducted censuses after 443 BC. -assigned citizens to centuries.

census : - the Roman census was repeated a fairly frequent intervals (roughly every five years) and after each census membership in the centuries was determined anew.

centuria : - a group of 100 men, usually referring to 1/60 of a Roman legion; membership determined anew after each census.
-the centuries were a means of combining vertical divisions of people based on locality (tribes) with horizontal divisions based upon property (classis/infra classeum)

City of Four Regions : - a name given to Rome after it was broken into the four tribes, Suburana, Esquiline, Collina, and Palatina, each region being named after one tribe.

civitas sine suffragio : -literally citizens without sufferage, it was a classification of a type of relationship between Rome and a subject community where the citizens of the subject community have the legal burdens of a Roman citizen (i.e. taxes and military service) but no political rights within Rome (but perhaps some within their own municipia).

clan : - (gens) A patrilineal descent group whose members (gentiles) claimed descent from a common ancestor. Established in Latium by 600 BC and earlier in Etruria.

clientes : - def: clients
- the armed men (vassels?) of the condottieri

Closing of the Patriciate : - a term/concept coined by De Sanctis for a suggested attempt of the men who overthrew the monarchy to form themselves into a closed aristocracy.
- could signify a period when the patricians turned their majority of political power into a monopoly of political power.

comitia centuriate : - technically, an army of the people.
- the military and political organization created by the Reforms of Servius.
- divided population by wealth and age.
- allowed richer to out vote poorer and older to out vote younger.
- membership of centuriate determined by censuses.
- in the first year of the Republic, the comita centuriate obtained Lex Valeria , the right to act as a court of appeal for capital cases. This is seen by some as a check on the power of the aristocrats.
- the voting units of the centuries

comitia curiata : - an assembly of the curiae which met to pass certain laws including conferring the imperium on senior magistrates.

commercium : - the Latin Right to deal and enter into contracts with persons in other Latin communities, later limited by Rome to individual communities with Romans but not each other.

concilium plebis : - a plebeian assembly which was re-organized in 471 BC based on local tribes and could be called by the tribunes.

condottieri : - aristocratic warlords whose power rested on the suport of armed personal dependents, who are variously styled clients (clientes) or companions (sodales). - such groups appear to have been common from the middle 6th to early 5th centuries BC.

Conflict of Orders : - a generic term given to a perceived and aggravated dispute between the Patricians and the Plebs (or those that would become the Plebs).
- Cornell argues that there was no Conflict of Orders until the Licinio-Sextian Rogations of the 4th Century

consilium : - the act of asking for advice from family members or friends by the pater of a family, or the name given to a body of people assembled to give such advice.

consul : -two individuals, perhaps initially army/legion commanders, who were elected by the comitia centuriata, held office for one year, held imperium while in office, and inherited many of the monarchy's insignia of power.
-a person could hold this post more than once, but not sequentially.
-took over some religious functions from kings, including sacrificing on behalf of the community, taking auspices, making public vows, and dedicating temples.

consular tribunes : -A new senior magistrate office consisting of three or more officers which seem to have replaced the office of consul sporadically after the Lincinio-Sextian legislation. They were often elected in times of peace and no consular tribune ever celebrated a triumph, suggesting they were not appointed for military leadership.

conubium : - the Latin right of contracting a legal marriage with another Latin community, later restricted to individual Latin communities with Romans, but not each other.

curiae : - a subgroup of tribes in ancient Rome with ten per tribe.
- retained certain residual functions in public life during the Republic.
- assembled as the comitia curiata and as such passed laws on conferring imperium on senior magistrates.
- membership in curiae depended upon what gens (clan) you were born into but was not necessarily based on kinship.
- may have been defined by territorial boundaries.

curio : - leader of a curiae, had to be over 50 years old and held office for life.

curio maximus : - a curio chosen as head of all the curiae.

Decemvirs : - A body of ten men called to codify and publish laws for Rome in 451-450 and again in 450-449.
- The first group (451-450), consisting of all patricians, wrote ten tables of laws for Rome and disbanded.
- The legal output of these bodies were the Twelve Tables, which showed signs of Greek influence in Roman laws.
- The second group (450-449), consisted of patricians and plebs, who wrote two additional tables of laws and then attempted to retain power as tyrants, resulting in the Second Secession.
- This form of government may have been an attempt to integrate the plebs within the state by doing away with the plebeian tribunes and aediles.

dictator : - magister populi
- appointed by one of the consuls during a mysterious nocturnal ceremony to handle specific emergencies and retained office for either six months or until the emergency was resolved. There was no appeal from his authority.
- while in office was superior to all other magistrates and probably held imperium.

Dunsel : -An academy term for a part that serves no purpose.
Elagabalus : - sexually flamboyant. - weakens government with his followers. - had multiple marriages and divorces. - deeply pious to Elagabalius and replaced Jupiter with Elagabala as head of Roman pantheon. - killed by own troops.Reigned: 218 - 222

eponymous dating : - the practice of naming a year after a consul who held office at that time.
- Krister Hanell suggested that this was the primary task of the consuls, at least at the beginning of the Republic.

Etruscan : -pertaining to Etrusca or Etruscan society.
-a Roman term implying something was ancient or outmoded.

Fasti Capitolini : - a list of the names of the Roman consuls as far back as 509 BC.
First Samnite War : - A war between the Romans and the Samnites between 343-341 BC. - The war started when Samnites attacked the Sidicini and their Campanian allies and the Campanians appealed to Rome for assistance. - In 341 the Samnites sued for peace, which Rome granted, only to have the Campanians and Sidicini join with Latins and Volscians in their revolt from Rome (see Romano-Latin War of 341-338).

First Secession : - The mass emigration of Plebs in 494, presumably in protest of plebeian debt and abuses and possibly in reaction to the overthrow of the monarchy.

First Veientine War : - a war fought between Veii and Rome over control of natural lanes of communication and noted for the near destruction of the Fabian tribe in 477.

Foedus Cassianum : - a bilateral treaty of 493 BC ending the Roman-Latin War and initiating a common defense clause in which, initially, both seem to have taken turns commanding the military.
- in 486 the Hernici are admitted into the terms of this treaty by the Romans, which shifted the balance of power of this treaty from a Latin-Roman split in favor of the Romans.

fossa : - a defensive ditch.

gens : - (clans) A patrilineal descent group whose members (gentiles) claimed descent from a common ancestor. Established in Latium by 600 BC and earlier in Etruria.

gentilies : - members of the same clan or gens.

haruspices : - Etruscan priests skilled in extispicy (the divination of entrails).
haruspices : - Etruscan priests who mastered extispicy (the examination of entrails for omens).
hoplite : - a warrior in Greek and Roman army whose armor included a helmet, breastplate, round shield, and greaves, and whose weapons included a spear and a sword.
imperium : - the right of military command.
interregnum : -a one year span between the death of one Roman king and the inauguration of the next when the patres acted as interrex.
interrex : - between kings - an office rotated between patres during the interregum. - each patra held the office for five consecutive days.
iudicium populi : - people's court which tried capital cases on appeal prior to the Twelve Tables.
ius migrationis : - the Latin right to acquire citizenship in another Latin community by taking up permanent residence within that community.

L. Junius Brutus : - one of the instigators in the coup of 509 and becomes one of the first consuls.
-makes Roman population swear never to restore the monarchy.
-killed in battle after Superbus gets Caere and Veii to attack Rome in an attempt to restore himself to power.

L. Tarquinius Priscus : -part Etruscan origin (or possibly Corinthian).
-believed to have started as "right hand man" of Ancus Marcius.
-married Tanaquil (believed to be Etruscan).
-successful reign as a warrior.
- believed to have organized the Latins in a military alliance with Rome.
-increased size of Senate and calvary.
-believed to have conquered Pometia and used proceeds to construct Capitoline temple.
-instituted games and public entertainments.
-victorious over Sabines and maybe Etruscans.
-assassinated by sons of Ancus Marcinus.
-succeeded by Servius with help of Tanaquil.
Reigned: 616 - 578

L. Tarquinius Superbus : - last of the seven kings of Rome.
- tyrant
- son [possible grandson] of L. Tarquinius Priscus and son in law of Servius.
- married Servius' daughter and murdered Servius.
- under Superbus, Rome becomes the dominant power in central Italy.
- establishes hegemony over Latins.
- commissioned temple of Capitoline Jupiter, but was forced into exile before dedication ceremony.
- expelled by aristocrats who set up a republic.
Reigned: 534 - 509

Lars Porsenna : - King of Clusium in the late 6th C./ early 5th C. BC.
- seems to have invaded Rome after the coup which removed Superbus, but whether successful and what his goals were remain obscured and opened to debate.
- some argue that he was actually responsible for the destruction of the monarcy.

Late Bronze Age : - circa 1200 B.C. - Known for increasing populations throughout Italy - Known for changes in funerary customs throughout Italy, with cremation replacing inhumation, as well as new types of pottery. - Apennine culture now viewed as proto-Villanovian. - Appearance of distinct cultural variations throughout Italy.
Latin Colonies : - Colonies traditionally formed by the joint Roman/Latin/Hernic alliance in conquered territories. These colonies were originally politically independent, with their own citizenships and territories, but often joined the Latin League as their geographic locations usually meant they were abutting Latin territory but not Roman. The term refers to the legal status of the colonies and not their ethnic makeup, as most of the colonists were probably Roman.

Latin League : - traditionally viewed as a confederation of Latin communities made in opposition to Rome.

Latinal Phase III : - Name given to period c. 770 - 720 BC in Italy, known for continued growth of population, consolidation into nuclear settlements, rise in quantity and quality of materials, rise in productivity, improved agricultural techniques, and introduction of wheel-made pottery.
Latins : - not only an ethnic group, the term also defined people who were entitled to a particular set of rights in Roman law, most notably conubium, commercium, and ius migrationis.

Leges Publiliae : - A three part law passed in 339 which allowed:
1. at least one censor must be a pleb.
2. a decision of the plebs should be binding on the people.
3. Authorization of the Fathers should be given BEFORE a law was voted upon by the people. The patricians could therefore stop laws from being voted on, although Cornell thinks these patrician objects could only be made on religious objections to the law.

Legion : - the main force of the Roman Army, composed of 60 centuries of heavy infantry accompanied by light-armed troops. - in reforms of Servius Tullius, only the soldiers in the first class were fully equipped as hoplites
Lex Canuleia : - A Roman law of 445 which overturned the Twelve Table's ban on marriages between the patricians and the plebians. Since a ban on patrician/plebeian marriages may have enforced some distance between the plebeian leadership and the patiricians, this ban might have been sought by the plebs.

Lex Genucia : - a law passed in 342 which seems to have reserved one of the consulships for a pleb (but not a patrician) and which also forbade interest on debt, but this aspect was rarely enforced.
- This law also forbade anyone from holding more than one magistracy at a time and also forbade anyone from holding the same office within a ten year period, resulting in fewer and more evenly dispersed honors for the nobility.
-Some of the results of this law were a more even dispersion of honors among the nobility, a curtailing of the rapid rise of ambitious individuals, and a switching of the political power to the Senate.

Lex Hortensia : - A law, passed in 287, which was endorsed to promote popular sovereignty and removed the last vestiges of patrician obstructions to paticio-plebeian oligarchy.
- This law was apparently made by Q. Horensius, a plebeian who was appointed as dictator to deal with plebeian secession caused by debt.
-This law required that only a consul or praetor could call a comitia and only a tribune could call a concilium plebis, but that these assemblies could not initiate or discuss proposals but merely vote yes or no. As the groups that voted were structured to favor the rich over the poor and the old over the young, it discriminated against the urban poor and the small farm owners.

Lex Ovinia : -A Roman law passed prior to 318 which gave the censors the task of enrolling Senators according to a set of criteria and considered the emancipation of the Senate from the power of the magistrates.

Lex Poetelia : - a law which legally abolished the nexum as a form of labor contract.

Lex Sacrata : - a collective resolution reinforced by oath, that specifically made sacer anyone who physically or verbally attacked a tribune.

Lex Valeria : -a law proposed by P. Valerius Publicola, one of the first consuls of the Republic.
-gave the comitia centuriata the power of a court of appeal.
-perhaps a concession of the aristocrats to the lower classes to get popular support and/or army's support for the coup of 509.

Lincinio-Sextian legislation : - A land reform law of 367 BC which sought to make public lands more accessible to the poor by limiting the amount of public lands paterfamilias could use to 500 iugera and limiting the types and number of animals which could be grazed on public lands.
- only imposed fines on those who transgressed the legal limits on the use of public lands and seems to have been rarely and weakly enforced.
- in addition to reforming how public land was used, this law also had a section on debt relief which stipulated that all interest payments should be deducted from the principal and that the remainder should be paid off in three annual installments.
-A third proposal of this law dealt with plebeian admission to consulship and aroused opposition. It seemed to require at least one of the consulships to be reserved for a pleb, but this actual sharing of power between patricians and plebs only started to be practiced in 342. To keep the cause alive, C. Lincinius Stolo and L. Sextius Lateranus were elected for ten sequential annual terms while the issue was being debates.
-A compromise was finally reached for this law in which the consulship was accessible to the plebs, the consuls were restored as chief annual magistrates (or occasionally replaced with consular tribunes , and a new magistracy, the praetorship, was made with mostly judicial powers, but also held the imperium and was only held by patricians.
-The apparent aim of this set of laws was to abolish all discrimination against the pelbeians.
-The result of these laws was the assimilation of all non-patricians into plebs and that a small group of rich and aspiring plebeians managed to gain a share in the political power, but afterwards probably disregarded their obligations to the plebs but instead joined with patricians to form the nobility.
-Under these laws the tribunes and aediles become equivalent to junior magistrates but stop challenging the ruling class in the interests of the poor.
-Under these laws the concilium plebis was assimilated into the comitia populi and their resolutions became law.
-Under these laws the plebeian institutions become mechanisms for promoting the legislation of the nobility.

lustrum : - ritual with sacrifice and procession around the Campus Martius practiced after the census. -perhaps symbolic refounding of Rome.
magister equitum : - (Master of Horse) appointed by a dictator and acted as his assistant.
- probably the head of the calvary in an emergency while the dictator commanded the infantry.

magister populi : - Latin title for the dictator
- appointed by one of the consuls during a mysterious nocturnal ceremony to handle specific emergencies and retained office for either six months or until the emergency was resolved. There was no appeal from his authority.
- while in office was superior to all other magistrates and probably held imperium.

manipular system : - A military formation of smaller units which replaced the Phalanx system during the Second Samnite War.
manus : - the legal authority/power of a husband over a wife.

Master of Horse : - (magister equitum) appointed by a dictator and acted as his assistant.
- probably the head of the calvary in an emergency while the dictator commanded the infantry.

municipium : - A term referring to any community incorporated into the Roman state as a self-governing body of Roman citizens.

nexi : - a bondsman who retained the status as a Roman citizen and continued to live within Rome.

nexum : - debt bondage or indenture.
- provided dependent labor for the exploitation of large land owners.
- the initial loan which had to be repaid may have been in-kind items such as seed-corn or other necessities.
- seizure into nexum was complicated and started with a judgement in court AND a 30 day grace period. After which, a second court appearance was required where the creditor could place the debtor in chains. At this point, a 60 day grace period was held in which the debtor could either take care of himself or was a prisoner of the creditor, who had to feed him. During this period, presumably, the debtor and creditor came to an understanding regarding debt repayment.

nobility : - literally meaning KNOWN ONES, this was a group of richer plebs and patricians who came to control the Senate.

Numa : - Second of the legendary seven kings. - he is characterized as being pacific and devout - credited with all major religious institutions of state, including calendar and priesthoods.Reigned: 716 - 674

paterfamilias : - the oldest surviving male ascendant within a family, who had virtually unrestrained authority over everyone in the family.

patres : -patrician heads of families with certain political rights.
patria potestas : - the legal power of a father over his potestate, which included the right to kill a potestate or to sell them.
patricians : - usually associated as an early aristocracy of Rome with exclusive ties to specific clans.
- De Sanctis suggests that they gradually developed into an exclusive group with well defined privileges during the archaic period.
- by the later half of the 5th C.B.C., this group exercised a near monopoly on political and religious offices.
- During archaic and early Republican eras, all major priesthoods were reserved for members of this group.
- During the mid-Republic, they were clearly identified as a group within the nobility.
- patrician status was hereditary.
- During the monarchy, they had to right to present a candidate(s) to the masses for kingship, and often may have suggested outsiders to prevent internal rivalries and tensions.
- may have led the coup to remove the anti-aristocratic, populist, and tyrannical monarchy.
- this socio/political group was known to have distinct footwear, wedding ceremonies, and burial customs.

Pattern of Roman Territorial Expansion : - In the mid-4th C, onwards, the Romans base their expansion on two principles:
1. The Romans dealt with defeated communities as individuals, not leagues or confederations
2. The Romans established a set of distinct relationships with each community, with specific rights and obligations clearly stated. This created a Roman commonwealth.

peculium : - funds in the control of either a slave or a potestate.

Plebians : - see Plebs

plebiscitary system : -During the 4th century BC, this was a political system by which the political leaders ruled by virtue of offices they held and their tenure in office depended on popular appeal and electoral success. It was undermined during the Samnite Wars.

Plebs : - an organized socio-political group consciously formed at a time of internal crisis, traditionally 494 BC, when large numbers of poor who were oppressed by debt and arbitrary treatment withdrew from the city en masse and occupied the Sacred Mount.
- their revolt was probably based on the uses of public land.
- by mid-fifth century BC, this socio-political organization was fully formed, with its own assembly, magistrates, and its own distinctive modes of political action. - the original purpose of this socio-political group was NOT to challenge the power of the aristocracy but to protect themselves from abuses (/debt?).
- this socio-political group was composed of people outside the ranks of the classes, and was not restricted to artisans, traders and other urban groups.
- the movement of this socio-political group led to the formation of a state-within-a-state within Rome.
-the plebeian movement may have been a self-help group that provided an alternative to those excluded from the benefits of patrician patronage. In this light, it may have attracted the membership of ambitious, well-to-do non-plebs, who sought to use the organization as a power base against the patricians. If true, the patricians probably responded by trying to ostracize plebs or discourage the growth of plebeian leadership.

pomerium : -def: sacred boundary. -especially the boundary of the city of Rome.
praetores : - army commanders
protestate : - a family member in the power of a paterfamilies.
- the legal level of a Roman male of mature years while his father remained alive, regardless of his political rank, which meant he could not be party to any legal transactions.

provocatio : - the right to appeal, usually referring to the right of the lower classes to appeal a magistrate's decision as given in the Lex Valeria.
Reforms of Servius Tullius : NOTE: not all sources agree with Cornell that the reforms were (a) carried out by Servius or (b) that they were at once political and military in it scope. These notes are based upon Cornell.

-Reforms designed in part to minimize political power of locally dominant aristocratic clans and/or patricians while maximizing central power of state.
-Servius ordered the first census to help carry out this reform.
-believed to be a political and military reformation of Roman society.
-earlier system based on tribes and was thus probably heavily influenced by aristocratic clan leaders.
-Servius remade the initial three tribes into four (presumably the urban tribes): Polatina, Collina, Esquilina, and Suburana
-reformed system relied heavily on information taken from the census.
-reformed society made membership in tribe, and thus Roman citizenship, dependent upon residence and registration in census (which was organized locally through tribes).
-broke people down into classes according to their wealth and subdivided these classes into centuries.
-To initiate these reforms, Servius Tullius established a system of monetary evaluation.
-classes also subdivided into two age groups, the iuniors (17 to 45) and seniors (46 to 60) which served as a home guard.
-centuriate divisions probably reduplicated in each tribe.
-these reforms created a system where the rich could out vote the poor and the elder could out vote the younger.
CLASS I: 80 centuries total (40 junior/40 senior)
CLASS II: 20 centuries total
CLASS III: 20 centuries total
CLASS IV: 20 centuries total
CLASS V: 30 centuries total
Supernumary
Equites: 18 centuries
Engineers: 2 centuries
Musicians: 2 centuries
Proletarians: 1 century
TOTAL: 193 centuries per legion

rex sacrorum : - priest who performed the religious functions of king not taken over by the consuls, but was not allowed to hold political office for fear of reinstating the monarchy.
-this priesthood probably came into being before the Republic and is thought by some to be the remnant of the king or a double monarchy.

Rogation : - A formal proposal of law for the people to vote upon.

Roman Army : - a legion in the army consisted of 60 centuries and accompanying velites. - in the monarchy, it is believed the army consisted of one legion with 6000 hoplites and 2400 velites. - in the Republic, the army seems to have consisted of 2 legions each with 3000 hoplites and 1200 velites. - always contained an equal number of members from each tribe and region - amounted to a cross section of the whole community, making splits by regional divisions hard. This also limited the power of dominant aristocrats. - when fewer troops were needed, lots were drawn as to which tribe would send its centuriate.
Romano-Carthaginian Treaty : - Agreed to in 507 BC, divides up spheres of influence between Rome and Carthage and in this respect treats Romans as the ruling power in Latium.

Romano-Latin War : -A war/revolt of the Latins against Rome, 341-338, because they resented being treated as subjects instead of allies.

Romulus : - Legendary first King of Rome.
sacer : - equivalent to ACCURSED. Anyone who killed a person with this title was performing a sacred duty and was not to incur legal penalty or blood-guilt.
- This title would be bestowed upon anyone who physically or verbally attacked a tribune.

Second Samnite War : -This war between the Romans and the Samnites lasted, on and off, between 326-304.
-During this war against the Samnites, the Roman army had four legions which had no abandoned the phalanx unit in preference of the smaller maniples.

Second Secession : - a mass emigration of plebs to the Aventine in protest of the tyrannical policies of the Second Decemvir in 450-449, resulting in the restoration of the old constitution.

Second Veientine War : - a war fought between Rome and Veii between 406 - 396 in which Rome ultimately attacks and defeats Veii.

Senate : - in archaic times, this political body was elusive, ill-defined, and of little political importance.
- perhaps modeled on the consilium as a group of advisers for the king.
- the governing body of Rome by the mid-Republic.
- before the Lex Ovinia it was not considered a disgrace for someone to be passed over for a position in this political assembly.

Septimus Severus : - governor of Pannonia Inferior
- born in Leptis Magna in Africa
- quaestor in 169 and 170
- 180 commanded Syrian legion under governor Pertinex
- married Syrian noblewoman
- gathered support from other provinces for his bid for emperor
- received support of Senate for purple; Senate had Julianus killed
- dismissed Praetorians and made new guard
- fought Niger in civil war, mostly in Eastern empire
- divided Syria into 2 provinces
- integrated Semitic portions of empire into central government
- elevated status of Syria and Africa
- raised Caracalla to Caesar in 195, thus breaking agreement with Albinus
- civil war with Albinus
- conquest of Mesopotamia and removal of buffer state with Parthia
- gave Alexandria back its ancient council
- allowed Egyptians in Roman Sentae
- expanded army and increased pay
- eliminated ban on marriage for soldiers in service
Lived: 4/11/145 - n/a
Reigned: 193 - 211

Servius Tullius : - sixth of the seven kings of Rome.
- questionable background, might have been a slave's son.
- served as right hand man of L. Tarquinius Priscus.
- came to power in questionable manner with help of Tanaquil.
- never appointed by patricians nor voted in by plebs, yet seemed to have support of plebs.
- reorganized citizen body [See Reforms of Servius].
- built temples and public buildings.
- carried out the first census.
Reigned: 578 - 534

Seven Kings of Rome : NOTE: reputable sources on the kings are rare and so entire subject is open to arguments.
- Cornell states that the early kings (before Tarquinius Priscus?) if historical must be placed between 625-570 BC.
- succession of kings was not hereditary and hereditary succession seems to have been deliberately excluded.
- many of the kings were outsiders, that is, not initially Roman.
- kings were not of patrician blood.
- when a king died, patricians held interregnum for one year.
- patres then nominated at least one, perhaps more, candidates for the people to choose from.
- people voted on the candidate(s) for a new king.
- patras ratified people's decision.
- curiate confirmed imperium on king.
- tenure of auspices from interregnum to king were transferred after a special religious ceremony which looked for favorable omens - inauguration.

sodales : -def: companions. -the armed men (vassels?) of the condottieri.
stipendium : - initiated in 406 BC, this was the pay for the Roman army to make up for their economic losses on prolonged campaigns.
Third Samnite War : -During this war, fought between 298-290, the Samnites had allied themselves with Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gauls against Rome.
-During the Battle of Sentinum, fought during this war, the Romans and their allies divert the Umbrians and Etruscans away from the battle and engage the Samnites and Gauls in a decisive victory in 295.

Three Tribes : - Initial political groups within Rome, allegedly made by Romulus, they were artificial units deliberately instituted for administrative and political functions.
tribune : - originally two in number, increase to 5 bin 471 and 10 by mid-5th century, these magistrates of the plebs had their authority based on lex sacrata.
- these plebeian magistrates had the ability to impose fines, imprison, or even give a death penalty against anyone who challenged their authority or who physically or verbally attacked them.
- as a magistrate of the plebs, they were suppose to use their significant legal powers to protect individual plebs, especially from the rich.
- the legal powers of these plebeian magistrates were not recognized by the patricians until the mid-5th century.
- eventually get power to veto. [when, what assembly?]

tributum : - a Roman property tax introduced near the end of the 5th C. BC, presumably to help pay the stipendium of the soldiers.
Tullus Hostilius : - Third of the legendary seven kings. [NOTE: OCD lists him as 6th and gives dates of 672 to 641; OCD also lists Servius Tullius as 6th]. - Probably conquered Alba Longa and assimilated its population and territory into Rome's.Reigned: 673 - 642

Twelve Tables : - a codified and published set of laws created by the two Decemvirs between 451-449 which may have been a response to the economic disturbance of the mid-fifth century.
- these sets of laws included a block on marriages between plebs and patricians.
- among other things, these set of laws provided women with a way of breaching manus: if a women slept out of her house for more than 3 nights the manus was broken.

Types of Roman Communities : -Around the mid-4th C, the Romans had developed three types of relationships with their subject territories.
1. In Latium, many communities were incorporated into Rome and their inhabitants made citizens, that is the communities became self-sustaining municipium.
2. Some Latin areas like Tibur and Praenesta retained their status as independent allies but gave up some territory. For these communities, the Latin Rights now applied only to each community and Rome, not between the communities, forcing these communities to grow ties only with Rome, not each other. Result was the dissolution of the Latin League.
3. partial citizenship, civitas sine suffragio, where the citizens of a subject community have all the burdens of Roman citizenship (i.e. taxes and military service) but no political rights. These communities also acted as municipia.
These relationships helped Roman growth in three ways:
1. the self-governing municipia allowed Rome to keep acquiring new territory without the expense and burden of administering it.
2. The civitas sine suffragio allowed the Roman Army to grow while keeping Roman integrity of political institutions.
3. They tended to bring back the Latin colonies, now loyal to Rome.

Valerio-Horatian Laws : - These laws, passed in 449 BC, reestablished the plebeian organization after the Decmvirate.
- Polybius said these laws marked the end of the formative stage of the Roman constitution.
- These laws reportedly cemented an alliance of convenience between the plebs and the patricians to get rid of the Decemvirs.
- Law had three parts:
1. recognized the tribunes, aediles, and a board of ten judges for the plebs
2. provocatio
3. gave legal validity to plebiscites.

velites : -lightly armed troops / light infantry. -usually made up of the poorer citizens.