arrived.


Achaea: a region in the central-north Peloponnesus

agoge: the Spartan system of public upbringing. Boys aged 7 were taught to fight, until they were age 30. Three divisions (paides , paidiskoi, and hebontes); only youth in line for kingship were exempt.

agora: a market place within a city.

apoika: Greek colonies established during the 8th – 6th Centuries, BC.

Archidamus: -A Spartan King at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War -Led Pelopnnesians in first attacks against Attica, including march against Plataea

Argolis: A region of the northeast Peloponnesus, dominated by the city of Argos; also a gulf / inlet of the Aegean Sea on the east coast of Peloponnesus

Cimon: 5th C. Athenian noble. Son of Miltiades and the daughter of the Thracian King Olorus.

Cimon: Athenean general who in 463 led a contingent of Athenians to Spart to help put down a slave revolt; later dismissed by Spartans. Ostracized in 461.

Cleisthenes (I): Tyrant of Sicyon. Held Trial of the Suitors to find a worthy husband for his daughter Agariste. Father-in-law to Megacles of Athens, and grandfather to Cleisthenes (II).

Cleon: Athenian statesmen who is forced to become a general and defeat the Spartans at Sphacteria/Pylus personally due to his pressuring the Athenians to reject an armistice of the Spartans. Eventually succeeds. Political enemy of Nicias.

Croton: Colony founded by Myskellos who, upon questioning the choice of the site to the oracle of Delphi sas told “Praise the gift you are given.”

Cylon: Athenian nobleman married to daughter of Theagenes, tyrant of Megara and winner at Olympia (possibly 640 according to OCD). Attempted to seize Acropolis (632?) but failed. He escaped but some of his followers who sought sanctuary in the temple were killed by the Alcmaeondidae (Athenian family) starting the belief that the goddess cursed that family.

Cyrene: A colony in Libya founded Therans following “Battosa” [check spelling of name] in the late 7th C. B.C.

Delian League: aka Athenian empire. An alliance of 478-7 to fight the Persians.

Demosthenes: Athenian general in the Peloponnesian war. Departed from Pericles’ strategy by seeking land battle at Aetolia (lost); 426 – won against superior forces at Metropolis; 425 - Pylus

diaspora: the movement of a population sharing a common ethnic identity.

Draco: (possibly 621/0) – Athenian lawgiver, believed to be first to put Athenian laws into writing. May have only made laws against particular crimes, like homicide. Made most infringements punishable by death allegedly stating that the transgressors of the lesser laws deserved death and that he knew of no greater punishment for the transgressors of the greater laws. All but homicide laws repealed by Solon.

Ephors: maintainers of the law and social system in Sparta. Not written into the constitution (Rheta) but may have been a position created by Lycurgus in lesser laws. Grow in political strength. Seem to be a check upon the Kings (and perhaps other aristocrats?); could prosecute kings before supreme court and arbitrated disputes between kings. Two ephors accompanied a king on campaigns.

eunomia: good order, established after Lycurgus and Tyrtaeus establish laws in Sparta.

Gerousia: a Spartan council of 30 elders (age 60 or over), including the kings, elected by the general assembly who had the exclusive rights to introduce proposals to the assembly, which the assembly then voted on.

hebontes: third and last stage of Spartan agoge; age 20-29; joined the syssitia and the army; could marry, but must remain in barracks life; competed for honor of joining the hippies.

Hippias: tyrant of Athens, 527-510. Son of Pisistratus. Reign was initially mild and Hippias was a patron of the arts. The Athenian owl coinage was probably introduced in his reign. Reign became harsher after murder of his brother Hipparchus in an “amorous intrigue” (OCD). Started of continued building programs in Athens. ousted by Cleomenes I of Sparta and fled to Sigeum and eventually court of Darius I. Was with Persian forces at Battle of Marathon.

hippies: Spartan kings bodyguard – 300 in number.
Also the "knights" or people worth over 300 measures in Solon's political/social reform.

Hyperakrioi: Athenian political faction, “of the hills” (or “beyond the hills) led by Pisistratus.

krypteia: part of the agoge, in which youth traveled the countryside concealing themselves by day. Possilby to spy on or kill prominent helots. Possibly as training for endurance and to live off the land.

Lycurgus (Sparta): traditional founder of Sparta’s political system, the Rhetra. Some stories say he brought this system from Crete, while other say it was given to him from the oracle of Delphi; contemporary scholars view the Rhetra has evolving over a long period of time and not solely the work of one man, although Lycurgus could have been an early major author.

Megacles: Athenian of Alcmaeon family, married daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon. Appears to be the factional leader of the Paralioi against Lycurgus’ Pedieis and Pisistratus’s Hyperakrioi (or Diakrioi). Initially opposed Pisistratus’ first seizure of power (560) but helped him the second time as a condition of Pisistratus marrying Megacles’ daughter.

Megara: one of the first Greek (Dorian) colonies settled on Sicily (see also Naxos)

Militiades: Athenian of Philaidai family. Married daughter of King of Thrace. Archon under Hippias, 524/3. Sent by Hippias to secure control of Chersonesus (perhaps to remove rival families from Athens?) Submitted to Darius I and served him in Scythain campaign. Eventually becomes an Athenian general and alledgedly responsible for encouraging Athenians to fight Persians at Marathon. Father of Cimon.

Mylae: colony on Sicily. Located along the north coast, 20 miles west of Zancle. Natives were displaced. Ancient sources say it was founded I n716, but pottery indicates and earlier settlement. Settled in large part to supply agricultural needs of Zancle.

Naxos: One of the first Greek colonies on Sicily (see also Megara)

Nicias: Athenian general in the Peloponnesian war; 426 – raided Tanagra.

paides: first stage of the Spartan agoge, age 7-17, when boys taught obedience and how to fight by older boys.

paidiskoi: second stage of the Spartan agoge, age 18-19; army reservists participants in the krypteia.

Paralioi: Athenian political faction,“of the coast,” led by Megacles (Alcmaeon family).

Partheniai: the sons of unmarried Spartan women born during the first Messenian war.

Pedieis: Athenain political faction, “The people of the plain” led by Lycurgus.

Pericles: (495-429) Athenian. Daughter of the niece of Cleisthenes (II) of Athens. First comes to prominence as an elected prosecutor of Cimon in 463. Joined with Ephialtes in attack on Areopagus in 462. Credit with Athenian foreign policy, especially anti-Spartan policies. Supporter of building programs in Athens in 440s and 430s. The policies of Athens in the 430s which led to the Peloponnesian War were presumably his (OCD)

Pericles: grandson of Cleisthenes, born c. 495. Athenian statesman who influenced Athenian imperialism and strategy in the early Peloponnesian War. Opposed to Sparta. Died of plague, c. 429.

Pisistratus: tyrant of Athens. Successful in war against Megara in 565. First seized power with a bodyguard granted to him by the Athenians in 560. Second time seized power with marriage alliance with Megacles and Herodotus’ alleged story of conning Athenians with a fake Athena. Ten year exile in Macedonia where he obtained military support and silver from his mines. Landed near Marathon in 546 and defeated opposition in Battle of Pallene. Died 527. Benevoloent and law abiding rule, taxed Athenians to raise revenue for state. Lent money to poor farmers at low interest and instituted travelling judges to bring justice to country. Purified Delos and brought it under firm Athenian control. Began building projects in Athens, including a fountain house for fresh water supply. Under Pisistratus, Athens begins to become an artistic center and develops silver mines. Militiades colonization of Chersonesus may have been to ease tensions between Pisistratus son Hippias and other families.

Pithekoussai: island off the West Italian coast. Probably the first Greek colony in Italy. Pottery dates back to about 770 Founded by Euboeans (possibly from Eretria and Chalcis) on the island of Ischia. Strabo says that the Eretrians and Chalcidians of the colony quarreled and the Eretrians left. Strong evidence of iron works on the island suggest that the colony was founded to trade for iron ore from Elba, process it, and trade it. Initially settled as a trading post. Syrian and Phoenician artifacts also found on site.

rhetra: a constitution of Sparta which rebuild the political and social systems into 5 newly created tribes (based upon wards rather than genetics) and stressed loyalty to the city over loyalty to family. Believed to have been written in the late 10th C to late 9th C, according to both contemporary histories and some archeological evidence (3 distinct types of pottery of the era/location tend to fade and are replaced with a single new type around this period).

seisachtheia: Solon’s economic reform, circa 594, in which either past debts were cancelled or discounted by an amount (27% mentioned in Hignett) perhaps by a large devaluation caused by adopting a new currency. Included ending enslavement for debt release and recalling and freeing slaves who were sold abroad.

Solon: -Athenian politician and poet.
-Encouraged Athens to continue its war against Megara for control of Salamis (600?) despite law forbidding discussion of topic.
-Became archon in 594 as the three Athenian political factions thought he could bring reform (economic and/or political) to Athens.
-By freeing the peasants, weakening the aristocrats, strengthening the assembly, and creating a better judicial system Solon laid foundation for stable society in Athens.
- Main thrust of economic reform was the seisachtheia.
- Reforms also divided Athenians into four groups (pentakosiomedimnoi (over 500 measures produced), hippies (knights - over 300 measures), zeugitai (over 200 measures), and the thetes (less than 200 measures). Upper two could hold high office, zeugitai could hold lower offices, and thetes could vote in assembly. Therefore offices now assigned due to wealth, not birth.
-Solon probably created the council of 400 to prepare business for the assembly.
-Encouraged immigration to Athens by reforming citizenship requirements and limited Athenian exports to olive oil (perhaps to encourage trade or perhaps due to shortage of other foodstuffs).
-Created category of public lawsuits by which average citizens could bring suit on behalf of other citizens.
-Solon's laws were transcribed on wooden axons (revolving pillars) for access by the citizens.


Syracuse: colony on Sicily. Settled in 734 (Thucydides – one year after Naxos) by Corinthians. Best harbor on the Sicilian east coast. Becomes richest of Greek Italian colonies. By 5th Century had become one of the great powers of the whole Greek world. Founded colonies of Acrae, Camarina, Casmenae, and Helorus.

syssitia: generic name for mess-companies; especially in Sparta and Crete. In Sparta, membership to a syssitia was only by unanimous vote of its members and was required for citizenship. Members had to supply a fixed amount of produce per month or become disenfranchised; from later 5th C. onwards, many poorer citizens defaulted.

Tarantum: settled by Spartan Partheniai (see also Taras)

Tyrtaeus: Spartan poet, 7th C. BC; Describes 2 aspects of Spartan life: public order and the Second Messenian War. In one work Eunomia he reminds the people that the kings rule by divine right and that an oracle from Delphi laid down the laws by which kings, council, and people shared power. In the works on the Messenian War, he describes a new system of fighting with discipline, rather than individual soldiers or a warrior caste.

Zancle: colony on Sicily. Believed to be founded soon after Naxos (730-720?) by settlers from Cumae and Chalcis who wished to secure the Messina straits. Very good natural harbor. No agricultural resources so founded Mylae to supply her needs.